A transformer can be a static machine utilized for transforming power in one circuit to a different one without changing frequency. It is a very basic concise explanation of transformer. As there is no rotating or moving part so transformer can be a static device. Transformer runs using ac supply. Transformer works about the principle of mutual induction.
If we wish to know the past of transformer we have return back long from the 1880s. Around 50 years before that in 1830 property of induction the working principle of transformer was discovered. Later the transformer design was improved causing more efficiency and lesser size. Gradually the large capacity of electrical transformers in the range of several KVA, MVA came into existence. Around 1950, 400KV electrical power transformer was introduced in high voltage electrical power system. In the early 1970s, unit rating as large as 1100 MVA was produced and 800KV and in many cases higher KV class transformers were created in year of 1980.
Generation of electrical power in low voltage level is incredibly much economical. Theoretically, this low voltage level power may be transmitted towards the receiving end. This low voltage power if transmitted leads to greater line current which indeed causes more line lossesBut in case the voltage amount of an electrical is increased, the existing of your power is reduced which causes lowering of ohmic or I2R losses from the system, decline in cross sectional section of the conductor i.e. decline in capital value of the device plus it increases the voltage regulation of the machine. As a result of these, low level power needs to be stepped up for efficient electrical power transmission. This is done by improve transformer at the sending side from the power system network. As this high voltage power is probably not given to the consumers directly, this must be stepped right down to the preferred level in the receiving end through the help of step down transformer. Electrical power transformer thus plays a crucial role in power transmission. power system Two winding transformers are generally used where ratio of high voltage and low voltage is higher than 2. It can be cost effective to use auto transformer the location where the ratio between high voltage dexjpky57 low voltage is less than 2. Again an individual unit three phase transformer is a lot more affordable compared to a bank of three power transformer in the three phase system. But a single three phase transformer unit is a bit difficult to transport and have to be pulled from service entirely if one of several phase winding breaks down.
Varieties of Transformer
Transformers can be categorized in a different way, depending on their purpose, use, construction etc. The sorts of transformer are listed below,
Improve Transformer and Step Down Transformer – Generally used for stepping all around the voltage degree of power in transmission and distribution power system network.
Three Phase Transformer and Single Phase Transformer – Former is often utilized in three phase power system because it is cost-effective than later. But when size matters, it can be preferable try using a bank of three single phase transformer as it is quicker to transport than a single single three phase transformer unit.
Electrical Power Transformer, Distribution Transformer and Instrument Transformer – Power transformers are typically utilized in transmission network for stepping up or down the voltage level. It operates mainly during high or peak loads and contains maximum efficiency at or near full load. Distribution transformer steps on the voltage for distribution purpose to domestic or commercial users. It provides good voltage regulation and operates 24 hrs every day with maximum efficiency at 50% of full load. Instrument transformers include C.T and P.T which are employed to reduce high voltages and current to lesser values which may be measured by conventional instruments.
Two Winding Transformer and Auto Transformer – Former is often used where ratio between high voltage and low voltage is higher than 2. It is cost-effective to make use of later the location where the ratio between high voltage and low voltage is below 2.
Outdoor Transformer and Indoor Transformer – Transformers that are equipped for installing at outdoor are outdoor transformers and transformers made for installing at indoor are furnace transformer.
Oil Cooled and Dry Type Transformer – In oil cooled transformer the cooling medium is transformer oil whereas the dry type transformer is air cooled.
Core type, Shell type and Berry type transformer – In core type transformer it has two vertical legs or limbs with two horizontal sections named yoke. Core is rectangular in good shape having a common magnetic circuit. Cylindrical coils (HV and LV) are placed on both the limbs.
Shell type transformer: It comes with a central limb as well as two outer limbs. Both HV, LV coils are placed in the central limb. Double magnetic circuit is there.
Berry type transformer: The core seems like spokes of wheels. Tightly fitted metal sheet tanks can be used for housing this sort of transformer with transformer oil filled inside.